The following events took place on July 31. The list is arranged in chronological order.
Found 52 events. Showing 1 - 30.
- 30 BCBattle of Alexandria: Mark Antony achieves a minor victory over Octavian’s forces, but most of his army subsequently deserts, leading to his suicide.
- 781The oldest recorded eruption of Mount Fuji (Traditional Japanese date: July 6, 781).
- 1009Pope Sergius IV becomes the 142nd pope, succeeding Pope John XVIII.
- 1201Attempted usurpation by John Komnenos the Fat for the throne of Alexios III Angelos.
- 1423Hundred Years’ War: Battle of Cravant: The French army is defeated by the English at Cravant on the banks of the river Yonne.
- 1451Jacques Cœur is arrested by order of Charles VII of France.
- 1492The Jews are expelled from Spain when the Alhambra Decree takes effect.
- 1498On his third voyage to the Western Hemisphere, Christopher Columbus becomes the first European to discover the island of Trinidad.
- 1588The Spanish Armada is spotted off the coast of England.
- 1655Russo-Polish War (1654–67): The Russian army enters the capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Vilnius, which it holds for six years.
- 1658Aurangzeb is proclaimed Moghul emperor of India.
- 1667Second Anglo-Dutch War: Treaty of Breda ends the conflict.
- 1703Daniel Defoe is placed in a pillory for the crime of seditious libel after publishing a politically satirical pamphlet, but is pelted with flowers.
- 1712Action of 31 July 1712 (Great Northern War): Danish and Swedish ships clash in the Baltic Sea; the result is inconclusive.
- 1715Seven days after a Spanish treasure fleet of 12 ships left Havana, Cuba for Spain, 11 of them sink in a storm off the coast of Florida. A few centuries later, treasure is salvaged from these wrecks.
- 1741Charles Albert of Bavaria invades Upper Austria and Bohemia.
- 1763Odawa Chief Pontiac’s forces defeat British troops at the Battle of Bloody Run during Pontiac’s War.
- 1777The U.S. Second Continental Congress passes a resolution that the services of Gilbert du Motier “be accepted, and that, in consideration of his zeal, illustrious family and connexions, he have the rank and commission of major-general of the United States.”
- 1790The first U.S. patent is issued, to inventor Samuel Hopkins for a potash process.
- 1856Christchurch, New Zealand is chartered as a city.
- 1865The first narrow-gauge mainline railway in the world opens at Grandchester, Queensland, Australia.
- 1874Dr. Patrick Francis Healy became the first Black man to be inaugurated as president of a predominantly White American university.
- 1904Russo-Japanese War: Battle of Hsimucheng: Units of the Imperial Japanese Army defeat units of the Imperial Russian Army in a strategic confrontation.
- 1913The Balkan States sign an armistice in Bucharest.
- 1919German national assembly adopts the Weimar Constitution, which comes into force on August 14.
- 1930The radio mystery program The Shadow airs for the first time.
- 1932The NSDAP (Nazi Party) wins more than 38% of the vote in German elections.
- 1938Bulgaria signs a non-aggression pact with Greece and other states of Balkan Antanti (Turkey, Romania, Yugoslavia).
- 1938Archaeologists discover engraved gold and silver plates from King Darius the Great in Persepolis.
- 1941The Holocaust: Under instructions from Adolf Hitler, Nazi official Hermann Göring, orders SS General Reinhard Heydrich to “submit to me as soon as possible a general plan of the administrative material and financial measures necessary for carrying out the desired Final Solution of the Jewish question.”
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